In a competitive environment, organizations that provide exceptional customer service can differentiate themselves from the crowd. It is sometimes argued that improving customer service leads to increased costs and therefore is a luxury that only organizations with value propositions at the premium end of the spectrum can afford. However in many cases it is possible to implement process improvements that improve customer experience without increasing costs.

In this paper, Adrian Reed argues that in order to achieve these types of benefit, it is useful to consider the processes from “end to end” and from “outside in” and look for opportunities to increase efficiency or effectiveness.