The previous white paper in this series considered the similarities and differences between Soft and Hard Systems. It explored this as a means of understanding where an Enterprise Architect can be more effective by integrating an engineering approach with the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM).

In this paper, Ceri Williams drills deep into a key area of difference and explores what it means in practice for the Enterprise Architect. He considers how SSM is inclusive of all areas of the situation/action space (i.e. scientific, technological, mechanical, material, psychological, social and cultural), while an engineering approach excludes psychological, social and cultural influences. This paper describes how an Enterprise Architect can appropriate elements of SSM and related social and cultural disciplines, and blend them in as a defined part of a holistic approach to Enterprise Architecture.